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druze and hinduism

He teaches also that Muslims cannot accept Druze penitence nor keep them alive, and Druze property should be confiscated, and their women enslaved. As a religious minority in every country in which they are found, they have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes. [50] At the same time, Bahāʼ al-DÄ«n was assigned the leadership of the Unitarians by Hamza. [140], Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad is considered the founder of the Druze and the primary author of the Druze manuscripts,[141] he proclaimed that God had become human and taken the form of man, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. While in the Hindu and Buddhist belief system a soul can be transmitted to any living creature, in the Druze belief system this is not possible and a human soul will only transfer to a human body. They soon made an alliance with the Ma'ans and were acknowledged as the Druze chiefs in Wadi al-Taym. Digital Event, Victoria, Copyright © 2010–2020, The Conversation Media Group Ltd. [52] The young caliph's regent, Sitt al-Mulk, ordered the army to destroy the movement in 1021. This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation The basis of Druze faith is the belief that Al-Hakim, the sixth Fatimid caliph, was the incarnation of God on earth. [49] The Druze's social customs differ markedly from those of Muslims and today's more urbanized Christians. In 1305, after the issuing of a fatwa by the scholar Ibn Taymiyyah, calling for jihad against all non-Sunni Muslims like the Druze, Alawites, Ismaili, and Twelver Shia Muslims, al-Malik al-Nasir inflicted a disastrous defeat on the Druze at Keserwan, and forced outward compliance on their part to Orthodox Sunni Islam. Male Ê»uqqāl often grow mustaches, and wear dark Levantine-Turkish traditional dresses, called the shirwal, with white turbans that vary according to the seniority of the Ê»uqqāl. The main Druze doctrine states that God is both transcendent and immanent, in which he is above all attributes, but at the same time, he is present. Actually, the term “Druze,” like the word “Hindu,” was coined by the Muslims. It is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad and the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, and Zeno of Citium. This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 03:51. He also accused Damascus of being behind the 1977 assassination of his father, Kamal Jumblatt, expressing for the first time what many knew he privately suspected. The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Islam,[30][31] and other religious beliefs. Ye now may find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged. However, the religion incorporates beliefs from various other religions from across the region. The Ma'an tribe, which superseded the Tanukhs and produced the greatest Druze hero, Fakhr-al-Din, had the same traditional origin. Subsequent Druze History 1300 A.D. Maliku 'l-Ashraf, the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt, defeated the Druze and forced them to conform to Sunni Islam, at least outwardly. [79] These sources assert that al-Hakim rejected al-Darazi's claims of divinity,[52][80][81][page needed] and ordered the elimination of his movement while supporting that of Hamza ibn Ali. HINDUISM The relation between the Druze faith and the far eastern thinking isobscure. The Druze (/ d r uЛђ z /; Arabic: ... Pythagoreanism, Hinduism and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to interpret esoterically religious scriptures, and to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness. Under his auspices the French established a khān (hostel) in Sidon, the Florentines a consulate, and Christian missionaries were admitted into the country. [238] While it is not yet known exactly what selective advantage is provided by this gene variant, the Haplogroup D allele is thought to be positively selected in populations and to confer some substantial advantage that has caused its frequency to rapidly increase. He hath urged you to declare your belief openly. Eastern Orthodoxy C. Sikh D. Sunni E. Shiite. Women can opt to wear al-mandÄ«l, a loose white veil, especially in the presence of other people. [131] Reincarnations occur instantly at one's death because there is an eternal duality of the body and the soul and it is impossible for the soul to exist without the body. Later, under the Ottoman, they were severely attacked at Saoufar in the 1585 Ottoman expedition, after the Ottomans claimed that they assaulted their caravans near Tripoli. This autonomy was maintained until World War I. Thus, God is perceived as the Lahut [the divine] who manifests His Light in the Station (Maqaam) of the Nasut [material realm] without the Nasut becoming Lahut. Druze philosophy also shows Sufi influences. [175][176], Since Druze either emerged from Islam and share certain beliefs with Islam, its position of whether it is a separate religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial among Muslim scholars. But European intervention pressured the Turks to treat the Maronites more justly. And by that time, because of earlier persecutions, their faith was closed to new followers and they opposed marriage outside of the Druze faith. [168] The Druze have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes such as the Shia Fatimid Caliphate,[50][169] Mamluk,[86] Sunni Ottoman Empire,[170][93] and Egypt Eyalet. Shishakli believed that among his many opponents in Syria, the Druzes were the most potentially dangerous, and he was determined to crush them. [10] Most Israeli Druze identify ethnically as Arabs. A human soul will transfer only to a human body, in contrast to the Hindu and Buddhist belief systems, according to which souls can transfer to any living creature. [57][59], Large communities of Druze also live outside the Middle East, in Australia, Canada, Europe, Latin America (mainly Venezuela,[60] Colombia and Brazil[dubious – discuss]), the United States, and West Africa. [121] In 2004, there were 102,000 Druze living in the country. In Syria, most Druzites live in the Jebel al-Druze, a rugged and mountainous region in the southwest of the country, which is more than 90 percent Druze inhabited; some 120 villages are exclusively so. While the spiritual elements of their religion … From their fortresses in the Gharb area (now in Aley District of southern Mount Lebanon Governorate), the Tanukhs led their incursions into the Phoenician coast and finally succeeded in holding Beirut and the marine plain against the Franks. Masterclass series, Victoria, Regulatory frameworks - free webinar Previous research has also shown that Ashkenazic Jews and Druze are genetically closer to one another than Middle Eastern populations – but until now, it was not clear why. Religions that adopt reincarnation as part of their mainstream teachings include Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism. [194], Both religions venerated Shuaib and Muhammad: Shuaib (Jethro) is revered as the chief prophet in the Druze religion,[195] In a mystical sense, it refers to the light of God experienced by certain mystics who have reached a high level of purity in their spiritual journey. The name Druze is derived from the name of Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-DarazÄ« (from Persian darzi, "seamster") who was an early preacher. Previous research has always placed the origins of the Druze in the the Near East region. Druze women in Isfiya, one of the largest Druze villages in Israel. [40] Scholars argue that Druze recite the Shahada in order to protect their religion and their own safety, and to avoid persecution by Muslims. Subsequently, the Druze chiefs of the Gharb placed their considerable military experience at the disposal of the Mamluk rulers of Egypt (1250–1516); first, to assist them in putting an end to what remained of Crusader rule in coastal Levant, and later to help them safeguard the Lebanese coast against Crusader retaliation by sea. Muhammad is regarded as the last prophet sent by God in Islam,[196][197] and in the Druze faith, Muhammad is considered an important prophet of God,[147][148] being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history.[30]. Unlike the spiritual leaders, the authority of the Shaykh al-Ê»Aql is limited to the country he is elected in, though in some instances spiritual leaders are elected to this position. The Druze faith incorporates elements of Islam's ISLAMAILISM, Judaism, Christianity, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, Pythagorean, Hinduism according to some, and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to esoterically interpret religious scriptures and to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness. But thanks to our new research that mystery may now have been solved, with the use of a genetic GPS system – that works in a similar way to the sat nav in your car. [39] Druze hold the Qur'an to be sacred, but look upon it as an outer shell, holding an "inner, esoteric meaning". Both faiths give a prominent place to Jesus:[147][148] Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, and in the Druze faith, Jesus is considered an important prophet of God,[147][148] being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history. [127], In their desire to maintain a rigid confession of unity, they stripped from God all attributes (tanzÄ«h). In 1957, the Israeli government designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community at the request of its communal leaders. Practices: Modest lifestyles, fasting before Eid al-Adha. The Maronite-Druze conflict in 1840–60 was an outgrowth of the Maronite Christian independence movement,[citation needed] directed against the Druze, Druze feudalism, and the Ottoman-Turks. Each color pertains to a metaphysical power called ḥadd, literally "a limit", as in the distinctions that separate humans from animals, or the powers that make human the animalistic body. Fact #3: Druze is a blend of Islam, Hindu, and Greek philosophy. [133], The Druze also use a similar formula, called al-'ahd, when one is initiated into the Ê»Uqqāl. Hinduism's early history is the subject of much debate for a number of reasons. The community does celebrate Eid al-Adha, however, considered their most significant holiday. Druze survivors "were found principally in southern Lebanon and Syria". Future public sector leaders' series Conference, Victoria, 2021 Humanitarian Leadership Conference - Who are the humanitarians? Druze Religion. In the Hebrew Bible Jethro was Moses' father-in-law, a Kenite shepherd and priest of Midian,[235] Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. One author comments that Tajalli occurs when the seeker's humanity is annihilated so that divine attributes and light are experienced by the person. Before becoming public, the movement was secretive and held closed meetings in what was known as Sessions of Wisdom. Their faith is eclectic and encompasses elements of Neoplatonism, Gnosticism, Ismailism, Pythagoreanism, Hinduism and other philosophies, which constitute a distinct theology that emphasizes both the role of the mind and truthfulness. [51], Although the Druze religious books describe ad-Darazi as the "insolent one" and as the "calf" who is narrow-minded and hasty, the name "Druze" is still used for identification and for historical reasons. The first feudal Druze family, the Tanukhids, which made for itself a name in fighting the Crusaders, was, according to Haydar al-Shihabi, an Arab tribe from Mesopotamia where it occupied the position of a ruling family and apparently was Christianized. THE DRUZE AND VEDIC ORIGINS. This article uses these congruities as a springboard for researching Druze origins. According to Druze accounts, Shishakli encouraged neighboring bedouin tribes to plunder the defenseless population and allowed his own troops to run amok. [105][106][107][108][109], Despite their practice of blending with dominant groups to avoid persecution, and because the Druze religion does not endorse separatist sentiments, but urges blending with the communities they reside in, the Druze have had a history of resistance to occupying powers, and they have at times enjoyed more freedom than most other groups living in the Levant.[104]. Under the military leadership of Sultan Pasha al-Atrash, the Druze provided much of the military force behind the Syrian Revolution of 1925–27. He hath done thus so that when you relinquish your previous beliefs and doctrines ye shall not indeed lean on such causes of impediments and pretensions. A total of 311 Israeli Druze were sampled: 37 from the Golan Heights, 183 from the Galilee, and 35 from Mount Carmel, as well as 27 Druze immigrants from Syria and 29 from Lebanon. [174] Most recently, the Syrian Civil War, which began in 2011, saw persecution of the Druze at the hands of Islamic extremists. The Talhuq family and 'Abd-al-Malik, who supplied the later Druze leadership, have the same record as the Tanukhs. The Unitarian Druze movement, which existed in the Fatimid Caliphate, acknowledged al-Zahir as the caliph, but followed Hamzah as its Imam. In 1038, two years after the death of al-Zahir, the Druze movement was able to resume because the new leadership that replaced him had friendly political ties with at least one prominent Druze leader. By 1018, al-Darazi had gathered around him partisans – "Darazites" – who believed that universal reason became incarnated in Adam at the beginning of the world, was then passed from him to the prophets, then into Ali and hence into his descendants, the Fatimid Caliphs. In 1016 ad-Darazi and his followers openly proclaimed their beliefs and called people to join them, causing riots in Cairo against the Unitarian movement including Hamza bin Ali and his followers. At the end of the 17th century (1697) the Shihabs succeeded the Ma'ans in the feudal leadership of Druze southern Lebanon, although they reportedly professed Sunni Islam, they showed sympathy with Druzism, the religion of the majority of their subjects. Marriage outside the Druze faith is rare and is strongly discouraged. These layers, according to the Druze, are as follows: Druze do not believe that the esoteric meaning abrogates or necessarily abolishes the exoteric one. [142][143][200][201][202] Within Islam, however, such a concept of theophany is a denial of monotheism. [86][page needed], The conquest of Syria by the Muslim Arabs in the middle of the seventh century introduced into the land two political factions later called the Qaysites and the Yemenites. [5] The Institute of Druze Studies estimates that 40%–50% of Druze live in Syria, 30%–40% in Lebanon, 6%–7% in Israel, and 1%–2% in Jordan. Some scholars maintain that Israel has tried to separate the Druze from other Arab communities, and that the effort has influenced the way Israel's Druze perceive their modern identity. Arabian tribes emigrated via the Persian Gulf and stopped in Iraq on the route that was later to lead them to Syria. The Druzites form a religious minority in Israel of more than 100,000, mostly residing in the north of the country. In the Epistles of Wisdom, Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad warns al-Darazi, saying, "Faith does not need a sword to aid it". [119] The second largest political party supported by Druze is the Lebanese Democratic Party led by Prince Talal Arslan, the son of Lebanese independence hero Emir Majid Arslan. Druze secrecy derives in part from the period of their persecution when they went underground in order to safeguard their faith. [75] Epistle thirteen of the Epistles of Wisdom called it "A spiritual doctrine without any ritualistic imposition". Furthermore, a male Druze can be reincarnated only as another male Druze and a female Druze only as another female Druze. Küçük Ahmet Pasha was a rival of Fakhr-al-Din and a friend of the sultan Murad IV, who ordered the pasha and the sultanate's navy to attack Lebanon and depose Fakhr-al-Din. Abstract by Dr. David Wolf. In 1660, the Ottoman Empire moved to reorganize the region, placing the sanjaks (districts) of Sidon-Beirut and Safed in a newly formed province of Sidon, a move seen by local Druze as an attempt to assert control. The Druze faith was founded in Egypt in the 11 th century and its followers primarily reside in the Middle East. Several towns were bombarded with heavy weapons, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses. The Druze faith was founded in Egypt in the 11th century and its followers primarily reside in the Middle East. HINDUISM The relation between the Druze faith and the far eastern thinking isobscure. [142][143][144][145][146] al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah is an important figure in the Druze faith whose eponymous founder ad-Darazi proclaimed him as the incarnation of God in 1018.[142][143]. While the spiritual elements of their religion are highly guarded and known only to the elders, the known practices are made up of various religions which include Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and Judaism. In terms of religious comparison, scholars consider Judaism and the Druze faith as ethnoreligious groups,[233] and both practice endogamy,[19] and both typically do not proselytize. Archaeological assessments of the Druze region have also proposed the possibility of Druze descending from Itureans,[237] who had inhabited Mount Lebanon and Golan Heights in late classic antiquity, but their traces fade in the Middle Ages. Many spies, mainly the followers of al-Darazi, joined the Unitarian movement in order to infiltrate the Druze community. Unlike Hinduism, the Druze believe human males are only reincarnated as human males, and similar for females. From 1957, the Israeli government formally recognized the Druze as a separate religious community,[231] and are defined as a distinct ethnic group in the Israeli Ministry of Interior's census registration. Each ḥadd is color-coded in the following manner: The mind generates qualia and gives consciousness. Neglecting this warning, individual seekers, scholars, and other spectators have considered al-Hakim and other figures divine. Mate is often the first item served when entering a Druze home. B. Hinduism C. Judaism D. Christianity E. Islam. Islamic schools and branches allows Muslim men to to be married to multiple women and divorce, contrary to the views of the Druze of monogamous marriage and not allowing divorce. [184] While for Ibn Abidin, whose work Radd al-Muhtar 'ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar is still considered the authoritative text of Hanafi fiqh today,[185] the Druze are neither Muslims nor apostates. [86][page needed]. The Druze religion has its roots in Islam, but although some members consider themselves “Muslim,” they have been recognized as a separate religion. The Druze faith incorporates elements of Islam's Ismailism, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, Pythagoreanism, Christianity, Hinduism and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to interpret esoterically religious scriptures, and to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness. [26][27], The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational text of the Druze faith. The Druze allegedly had immoral images, similar to some sects of Hinduism, but that is wrong, too. The ruins of this castle still stand on a steep hill overlooking the town. Many of the Druze feudal families whose genealogies have been preserved by the two modern Syrian chroniclers Haydar al-Shihabi and Ahmad Faris al-Shidyaq seem also to point in the direction of this origin. And although by that time, neither one recalled their common roots, both retained the evidence in their genes. [128][page needed], In this dogma, they are similar to the semi-philosophical, semi-religious body which flourished under Al-Ma'mun and was known by the name of Mu'tazila and the fraternal order of the Brethren of Purity (Ikhwan al-á¹¢afa). The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine. Before and during the Lebanese Civil War (1975–90), the Druze were in favor of Pan-Arabism and Palestinian resistance represented by the PLO. — The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Christianity, and other religious beliefs. Similarities between the Druze and Christians include commonalities in their view of monogamous marriage and divorce, as well as belief in the oneness of God and theophany. [citation needed] Persecutions started forty days after the disappearance into Occultation of al-Hakim, who was thought to have been converting people to the Unitarian faith for over twenty years prior. [50][52], Some authorities see in the name "Druze" a descriptive epithet, derived from Arabic dārisah ("she who studies"). The holy places become more important to the community in times of adversity and calamity. [89], Consequently, the 16th and 17th centuries were to witness a succession of armed Druze rebellions against the Ottomans, countered by repeated Ottoman punitive expeditions against the Chouf, in which the Druze population of the area was severely depleted and many villages destroyed. 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