History of Greece: Primary Documents > Hellenistic and Roman: 323 BC - 4th Century AD EuroDocs Creator: Richard Hacken, European Studies Librarian, Harold B. Lee Library , Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA. They continued to attack neighboring kingdoms such as Bithynia and Pergamon, plundering and extracting tribute. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization[5] which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. [20] Seleucus was forced to flee to Egypt and Antigonus was soon at war with Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander. The Bosporan Kingdom was a multi-ethnic kingdom of Greek city states and local tribal peoples such as the Maeotians, Thracians, Crimean Scythians and Cimmerians under the Spartocid dynasty (438–110 BC). In 4th-century BC Sicily the leading Greek city and hegemon was Syracuse. In consequence, the Hellenistic Period is usually accepted to begin in 323 BCE with Alexander's death and ends in 31 BCE with the conquest of the last Hellenistic kingdom by Rome, the Lagid kingdom of Egypt. Stoicism, founded by Zeno of Citium, taught that virtue was sufficient for eudaimonia as it would allow one to live in accordance with Nature or Logos. Most of the Greek cities rallied to the Achaeans' side, even slaves were freed to fight for Greek independence. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Pyrrhonism. It is a 37-gear mechanical computer which computed the motions of the Sun and Moon, including lunar and solar eclipses predicted on the basis of astronomical periods believed to have been learned from the Babylonians. Hellenistic art is the art of the Hellenistic period generally taken to begin with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and end with the conquest of the Greek world by the Romans, a process well underway by 146 BCE, when the Greek mainland was taken, and essentially ending in 30 BCE with the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt following the Battle of Actium. But the freedom promised by Rome was an illusion. Even Rome's allies Rhodes and Pergamum effectively lost their independence. During the reign of the Artaxiads, Armenia went through a period of hellenization. Nevertheless, Roman rule at least brought an end to warfare, and cities such as Athens, Corinth, Thessaloniki and Patras soon recovered their prosperity. [101] The core of Carthage's military was the Greek-style phalanx formed by citizen hoplite spearmen who had been conscripted into service, though their armies also included large numbers of mercenaries. Seleucus then attempted to conquer Lysimachus' European territories in Thrace and Macedon, but he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus ("the thunderbolt"), who had taken refuge at the Seleucid court and then had himself acclaimed as king of Macedon. As the Greek and Levantine cultures mingled, the development of a hybrid Hellenistic culture began, and persisted even when isolated from the main centres of Greek culture (for instance, in the Greco-Bactrian kingdom). In many ways, the Hellenistic period was a hugely cultured age – almost self-consciously so. Many Scythian elites purchased Greek products and some Scythian art shows Greek influences. In 133 BC, the last king of Pergamum died and left his kingdom to Rome: this brought most of the Aegean peninsula under direct Roman rule as part of the province of Asia. Hellenistic age, in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 bce. Hellenistic Greece 1. It is probable that at this point the Greco-Bactrian kingdom split into several semi-independent regions for some years, often warring amongst themselves. In this way, hybrid 'Hellenistic' cultures naturally emerged, at least among the upper echelons of society. Apollodotus I was succeeded by or ruled alongside Antimachus II, likely the son of the Bactrian king Antimachus I. The Hellenistic Era covers the period of Mediterranean history between Alexander the Great’s death in 323 BC and Rome’s conquest in Egypt in 30 BC. Greek city state known for philosophy, democracy, and arts. Eumenes II also constructed the Pergamum Altar with friezes depicting the Gigantomachy on the acropolis of the city. The Hellenistic period began with the wars of the Diadochi, armed contests among the former generals of Alexander the Great to carve up his empire in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. While victorious in the field, it seems Antiochus came to realise that there were advantages in the status quo (perhaps sensing that Bactria could not be governed from Syria), and married one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son, thus legitimising the Greco-Bactrian dynasty. Antiochus invaded Greece with a 10,000 man army, and was elected the commander in chief of the Aetolians. Still, Greek influence remained strong throughout many of those lands. Like the Ptolemies, Antiochus I established a dynastic religious cult, deifying his father Seleucus I. Seleucus, officially said to be descended from Apollo, had his own priests and monthly sacrifices. That is why the period from 323 BC to 27 BC became known as the Hellenistic period. During the reign of Philip V of Macedon (r. 221-179 BC), the Macedonians not only lost the Cretan War (205-200 BC) to an alliance led by Rhodes, but their erstwhile alliance with Hannibal of Carthage also entangled them in the First and Second Macedonian War with ancient Rome. and Diogenes of Sinope (c. 404-323 B.C.E.) The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World, 2007. p. 190. Demetrius, son and successor of Euthydemus, invaded north-western India in 180 BC, after the destruction of the Mauryan Empire there; the Mauryans were probably allies of the Bactrians (and Seleucids). Nabatean material culture does not show any Greek influence until the reign of Aretas III Philhellene in the 1st century BC. One of the few city states who managed to maintain full independence from the control of any Hellenistic kingdom was Rhodes. The Sophists proclaimed the centrality of humanity and agnosticism; the belief in Euhemerism (the view that the gods were simply ancient kings and heroes), became popular. He also expanded the kingdom further east into Punjab, though these conquests were rather ephemeral. Celtic coinage was influenced by Greek designs,[43] and Greek letters can be found on various Celtic coins, especially those of Southern France. In 310 BC, Cassander had young King Alexander IV and his mother Roxana murdered, ending the Argead Dynasty which had ruled Macedon for several centuries. In the aftermath, Philip formed the League of Corinth, effectively bringing the majority of Greece under his direct sway. [118] Hellenistic kings adopted patron deities as protectors of their house and sometimes claimed descent from them. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, the only few surviving representative texts being those of Menander (born 342/341 BC). Arnaldo Momigliano, an Italian Jew who wrote before and after the Second World War, studied the problem of mutual understanding between races in the conquered areas. He and his successors also fought a series of wars with the Seleucids, known as the Syrian wars, over the region of Coele-Syria. These federations involved a central government which controlled foreign policy and military affairs, while leaving most of the local governing to the city states, a system termed sympoliteia. Hellenistic means imitating the Greeks. Recently, however, papyrologist C. Préaux has concentrated predominantly on the economic system, interactions between kings and cities, and provides a generally pessimistic view on the period. During the course of this war Roman troops moved into Asia for the first time, where they defeated Antiochus again at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). Although Mithridates was not Greek, many Greek cities, including Athens, overthrew their Roman puppet rulers and joined him. The numismatic evidence together with archaeological finds and the scant historical records suggest that the fusion of eastern and western cultures reached its peak in the Indo-Greek kingdom. Afterwards he invaded southern Greece, and was killed in battle against Argos in 272 BC. 280 BC), the Boeotian league, the "Northern League" (Byzantium, Chalcedon, Heraclea Pontica and Tium)[28] and the "Nesiotic League" of the Cyclades. 321 B.C. Hellenistic scholars frequently employed the principles developed in earlier Greek thought: the application of mathematics and deliberate empirical research, in their scientific investigations.[128]. The Hellenistic period refers to the time from the death of Alexander the Great or the end of the Greek Classical Era in 323 B.C. This was a very short period in history. While Sparta remained independent, it became a political backwater. This was a very short period in history. The spread of Christianity throughout the Roman world, followed by the spread of Islam, ushered in the end of Hellenistic philosophy and the beginnings of Medieval philosophy (often forcefully, as under Justinian I), which was dominated by the three Abrahamic traditions: Jewish philosophy, Christian philosophy, and early Islamic philosophy. The spread of Greek culture under the Successors seems mostly to have occurred with the spreading of Greeks themselves, rather than as an active policy. In 255 BC, Ariarathes III took the title of king and married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II, remaining an ally of the Seleucid kingdom. This defeat allowed Pontus to invade and conquer the kingdom. The Egyptians begrudgingly accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt, though the kingdom went through several native revolts. After Cassander's death in c. 298 BC, however, Demetrius, who still maintained a sizable loyal army and fleet, invaded Macedon, seized the Macedonian throne (294 BC) and conquered Thessaly and most of central Greece (293–291 BC). This period is called as the ancient Greece Hellenistic because of the Greek empire was spread across the entire Mediterranean and parts of Asia and had reached till India. Despite their initial reluctance, the Successors seem to have later deliberately naturalized themselves to their different regions, presumably in order to help maintain control of the population. During the reign of Tigranes the Great (95–55 BC), the kingdom of Armenia reached its greatest extent, containing many Greek cities, including the entire Syrian tetrapolis. Crateuas wrote a compendium on botanic pharmacy. Their rulers established ruler cults in the manner of Hellenistic kings and often used Hellenistic royal epithets. 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hellenistic greece time period

The plots of this new Hellenistic comedy of manners were more domestic and formulaic, stereotypical low born characters such as slaves became more important, the language was colloquial and major motifs included escapism, marriage, romance and luck (Tyche). Philip continued to wage war against Pergamum and Rhodes for control of the Aegean (204–200 BC) and ignored Roman demands for non-intervention in Greece by invading Attica. Epirus was a northwestern Greek kingdom in the western Balkans ruled by the Molossian Aeacidae dynasty. This presented Antiochus III with a pretext to invade Greece and 'liberate' it from Roman influence, thus starting the Roman-Syrian War (192–188 BC). Libraries were also present in Antioch, Pella, and Kos. Independent city states were unable to compete with Hellenistic kingdoms and were usually forced to ally themselves to one of them for defense, giving honors to Hellenistic rulers in return for protection. His son, Zipoetes I of Bithynia maintained this autonomy against Lysimachus and Seleucus I, and assumed the title of king (basileus) in 297 BC. [45] A staunch ally of Rome, Massalia retained its independence until it sided with Pompey in 49 BC and was then taken by Caesar's forces. This period also marks the beginning of the obfuscation of Greco-Bactrian history. [23] Lysimachus, who had seized Macedon and Thessaly for himself, was forced into war when Seleucus invaded his territories in Asia Minor and was defeated and killed in 281 BC at the Battle of Corupedium, near Sardis. During the reign of Mithridates II, Pontus was allied with the Seleucids through dynastic marriages. With the support of royal stipends, Alexandrian scholars collected, translated, copied, classified, and critiqued every book they could find. Hellenistic science differed from Greek science in at least two ways: first, it benefited from the cross-fertilization of Greek ideas with those that had developed in the larger Hellenistic world; secondly, to some extent, it was supported by royal patrons in the kingdoms founded by Alexander's successors. The decisive engagement of the war came when Lysimachus invaded and overran much of western Anatolia, but was soon isolated by Antigonus and Demetrius near Ipsus in Phrygia. Astrology was widely associated with the cult of Tyche (luck, fortune), which grew in popularity during this period. 12 The Hellenistic Period 335 B.C. The Peace of Apamaea (188 BC) left Rome in a dominant position throughout Greece. The Parthians used Greek as well as their own Parthian language (though lesser than Greek) as languages of administration and also used Greek drachmas as coinage. Antigonus II ruled until his death in 239 BC, and his family retained the Macedonian throne until it was abolished by the Romans in 146 BC. CE., and the work of Archimedes on mathematics along with his practical inventions became influential and legendary. 12 The Hellenistic Period 335 B.C. During the course of this war Roman troops moved into Asia for the first time, where they defeated Antiochus again at Magnesia on the Sipylum (190 BC). Before the Hellenistic period, Greek colonies had been established on the coast of the Crimean and Taman peninsulas. Lysimachus was in turn defeated and killed in 280 BC. In 146 BC, the Greek peninsula, though not the islands, became a Roman protectorate. These cults were usually associated with a specific temple in honor of the ruler such as the Ptolemaieia at Alexandria and had their own festivals and theatrical performances. Initially the whole empire was divided among them; however, some territories were lost relatively quickly, or only remained nominally under Macedonian rule. Pontic culture was a mix of Greek and Iranian elements; the most hellenized parts of the kingdom were on the coast, populated by Greek colonies such as Trapezus and Sinope, the latter of which became the capital of the kingdom. To counter the power of Macedon under Cassander, Athens courted alliances with other Hellenistic rulers such as Antigonus I Monophthalmus, and in 307 Antigonus sent his son Demetrius to capture the city. Eumenes II turned Pergamon into a centre of culture and science by establishing the library of Pergamum which was said to be second only to the library of Alexandria[69] with 200,000 volumes according to Plutarch. Many Greek cities, including Athens, overthrew their Roman puppet rulers and joined him in the Mithridatic wars. This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 17:48. [52] Promotion of immigration from Greece was important in the establishment of this system. [25] A large number of the Macedonian population had also been resettled abroad by Alexander or had chosen to emigrate to the new eastern Greek cities. Pergamum broke away under Eumenes I who defeated a Seleucid army sent against him. The Hellenistic West, pp. Alexander also seems to have attempted to create a mixed Greco-Persian elite class as shown by the Susa weddings and his adoption of some forms of Persian dress and court culture. Ariarathes I (332–322 BC) was the satrap of Cappadocia under the Persians and after the conquests of Alexander he retained his post. Cicero was educated in Athens and Mark Antony in Rhodes. Though this comparison is now seen as unfair and meaningless, it has been noted that even commentators of the time saw the end of a cultural era which could not be matched again. Though victorious, he was forced to retreat due to heavy losses, hence the term "Pyrrhic victory". This was the time when the Attic dialect of the Greek language, that you may know as Koine Greek , became the lingua franca in the Mediterranean and other regions that were reached and influenced by … [7] This mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. The religious ideas in Greece itself and the western part of the Alexandrian Empire, however, changed very slowly, because the Greeks, now masters of the world, felt no need for change. : Lamian War (Hellenic War). Preserved examples of ball projectiles range from 4.4 to 78 kg (9.7 to 172.0 lb). Dynastic families patronized large complexes and dramatic urban plans within their cities. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and a syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India. Astronomers like Hipparchus (c. 190 – c. 120 BC) built upon the measurements of the Babylonian astronomers before him, to measure the precession of the Earth. Some of gold and silver with openwork designs of stylised birds have a similar distribution to the Mramorac bracelets and may also have been produced under Greek influence.". [131] Known as the "Father of Geography", Eratosthenes also created the first map of the world incorporating parallels and meridians, based on the available geographical knowledge of the era. For some purposes the period is extended for a further three and a half centuries, to the move by Constantine the Great of his capital to Constantinople (Byzantium) in 330 ce . The term Hellenistic is derived from the Ancient Greek root word Hellas, which was used in reference to the territory of Greece. The term Hellenistic is derived from the Ancient Greek root word Hellas, which was used in reference to the territory of Greece. [93] The peoples around Pontic Olbia, known as the Callipidae, were intermixed and Hellenized Greco-Scythians. The west Balkan coast was inhabited by various Illyrian tribes and kingdoms such as the kingdom of the Dalmatae and of the Ardiaei, who often engaged in piracy under Queen Teuta (reigned 231–227 BC). This period is called as the ancient Greece Hellenistic because of the Greek empire was spread across the entire Mediterranean and parts of Asia and had reached till India. Scythian pressure on the Bosporan kingdom under Paerisades V led to its eventual vassalage under the Pontic king Mithradates VI for protection, c. 107 BC. The exact justification for the invasion remains unclear, but by about 175 BC, the Greeks ruled over parts of northwestern India. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). The level of Hellenistic achievement in astronomy and engineering is impressively shown by the Antikythera mechanism (150–100 BC). The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus, P. 17. The defeat of the Greek cities by Philip and Alexander also taught the Greeks that their city-states could never again be powers in their own right, and that the hegemony of Macedon and its successor states could not be challenged unless the city states united, or at least federated. His vast empire split up between his leading generals, who established royal dynasties over the separate kingdoms. The Aetolians and the Achaeans developed strong federal states or leagues (koinon), which were governed by councils of city representatives and assemblies of league citizens. Cassander's power was challenged by Antigonus, ruler of Anatolia, who promised the Greek cities that he would restore their freedom if they supported him. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). Even barbarians, such as the Galatians, were depicted in heroic form, prefiguring the artistic theme of the noble savage. [56][57][58][59] At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, today's Turkmenistan, Pamir, and parts of Pakistan. Roman entanglement in the Balkans began when Illyrian piratical raids on Roman merchants led to invasions of Illyria (the First and, Second Illyrian Wars). The Ptolemaic Tessarakonteres was the largest ship constructed in Antiquity. Without a chosen successor there were immediate disputes among his generals as to who should be king of Macedon. Ptolemy, a somatophylax, one of the seven bodyguards who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. However the socio-political changes brought on by the conquest of the Persian empire and Greek emigration abroad meant that change also came to religious practices. Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms and figurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. Alexander appointed an Orontid named Mithranes to govern Armenia. [129] Eratosthenes measured the Earth's circumference with remarkable accuracy. After the Battle of Beneventum (275 BC) Pyrrhus lost all his Italian holdings and left for Epirus. In some fields Hellenistic culture thrived, particularly in its preservation of the past. Under the Seleucids, Parthia was governed by various Greek satraps such as Nicanor and Philip. Notice the florals on the bull capital from Rampurva, and the style of the horse on the Sarnath capital, now the emblem of the Republic of India.". For the Asian part, we could lengthen it to 10 BCE, when the last Indo-Greek kingdom was conquered by Indo-Sakas. [97] The Greek admiral Nearchus is believed to have been the first of Alexander's commanders to visit these islands. [105] Famously, the end of Ptolemaic Egypt came as the final act in the republican civil war between the Roman triumvirs Mark Anthony and Augustus Caesar. The Illyrians: history and culture, History and Culture Series, The Illyrians: History and Culture, Aleksandar Stipčević, The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 233&236, "The Illyrians liked decorated belt-buckles or clasps (see figure 29). They retained their independence by the maintenance of a powerful navy, by maintaining a carefully neutral posture and acting to preserve the balance of power between the major Hellenistic kingdoms.[30]. These generals became known as the Diadochi (Greek: Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, meaning "Successors"). Hellenistic military equipment was generally characterized by an increase in size. [65] After the death of Ptolemy IV (204 BC), Antiochus took advantage of the weakness of Egypt to conquer Coele-Syria in the fifth Syrian war (202–195 BC). Some ethnic groups were known for their martial skill in a particular mode of combat and were highly sought after, including Tarantine cavalry, Cretan archers, Rhodian slingers and Thracian peltasts. The degree of influence that Greek culture had throughout the Hellenistic kingdoms was therefore highly localized and based mostly on a few great cities like Alexandria and Antioch. Various parts of Thrace were under Macedonian rule under Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Lysimachus, Ptolemy II, and Philip V but were also often ruled by their own kings. In 202 BC, Rome defeated Carthage, and was free to turn her attention eastwards, urged on by her Greek allies, Rhodes and Pergamum. The Hellenistic Styles. Athens would later also establish a cult for the Pergamene king Attalos I. Antigonus II died in 239 BC. Indian sources also maintain religious contact between Buddhist monks and the Greeks, and some Greco-Bactrians did convert to Buddhism. Peter Green, on the other hand, writes from the point of view of late-20th-century liberalism, his focus being on individualism, the breakdown of convention, experiments, and a postmodern disillusionment with all institutions and political processes. Demetrius fled to central Greece with his mercenaries and began to build support there and in the northern Peloponnese. The focus on the Hellenistic period over the course of the 19th century by scholars and historians has led to an issue common to the study of historical periods; historians see the period of focus as a mirror of the period in which they are living. Ancient Greece had traditionally been a fractious collection of fiercely independent city-states. Initially Rhodes had very close ties with the Ptolemaic kingdom. Octavian, who later became the emperor Augustus, defeated Marc Antony’s fleet and, consequently, ended Ptolemaic rule. … Hellenistic Greece 6-2.2: Analyze the role of Alexander the Great (Hellenistic period), Socrates, Plato, Archimedes, Aristotle, and others in the creation and spread of Greek governance, literature, philosophy, the arts, math and science. Its capital was the city of Petra, an important trading city on the incense route. Oxford University Press page 255. Most of the great literary figures of the Hellenistic period studied at Alexandria and conducted research there. Southern Greece was now thoroughly brought into the Roman sphere of influence, though it retained nominal autonomy. Throughout the Hellenistic world, these Greco-Macedonian colonists considered themselves by and large superior to the native "barbarians" and excluded most non-Greeks from the upper echelons of courtly and government life. The Bosporans had long lasting trade contacts with the Scythian peoples of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, and Hellenistic influence can be seen in the Scythian settlements of the Crimea, such as in the Scythian Neapolis. Bit by bit, the empire crumbled. Macedonian and Hellenistic monarchs were expected to lead their armies on the field, along with a group of privileged aristocratic companions or friends (hetairoi, philoi) which dined and drank with the king and acted as his advisory council. The term “hellenic” means to imitate Greeks, and its period is the time of domination of fusion of the Greek language and customs with the culture of … In 198 BC, the Second Macedonian War broke out for obscure reasons, but very likely because Rome saw Macedon as a potential ally of the Seleucids, the greatest power in the east. Epirus was an ally of Macedon during the reigns of Philip II and Alexander. Hellenistic Greece 6-2.2: Analyze the role of Alexander the Great (Hellenistic period), Socrates, Plato, Archimedes, Aristotle, and others in the creation and spread of Greek governance, literature, philosophy, the arts, math and science. It is not known whether Bahrain was part of the Seleucid Empire, although the archaeological site at Qalat Al Bahrain has been proposed as a Seleucid base in the Persian Gulf. Hellenistic Greece is the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek Achaean League heartlands by the Roman Republic. Athens, with its multiple philosophical schools, continued to remain the center of philosophical thought. The Indo-Greek kingdom appears to have lingered on in western Punjab until about AD 10, at which time it was finally ended by the Indo-Scythians. Historians commonly refer to this era in Ancient Greece as the Hellenistic Period. According to Pliny, "He painted barbers' shops, cobblers' stalls, asses, eatables and similar subjects, earning for himself the name of rhyparographos [painter of dirt/low things]. Xanthippus reformed the Carthaginian military along Macedonian army lines. The Hellenistic states of Asia and Egypt were run by an occupying imperial elite of Greco-Macedonian administrators and governors propped up by a standing army of mercenaries and a small core of Greco-Macedonian settlers. This 'Greco-Macedonian' population (which also included the sons of settlers who had married local women) could make up a phalanx of 35,000 men (out of a total Seleucid army of 80,000) during the reign of Antiochus III. EuroDocs > History of Greece: Primary Documents > Hellenistic and Roman: 323 BC - 4th Century AD EuroDocs Creator: Richard Hacken, European Studies Librarian, Harold B. Lee Library , Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA. They continued to attack neighboring kingdoms such as Bithynia and Pergamon, plundering and extracting tribute. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization[5] which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. [20] Seleucus was forced to flee to Egypt and Antigonus was soon at war with Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander. The Bosporan Kingdom was a multi-ethnic kingdom of Greek city states and local tribal peoples such as the Maeotians, Thracians, Crimean Scythians and Cimmerians under the Spartocid dynasty (438–110 BC). In 4th-century BC Sicily the leading Greek city and hegemon was Syracuse. In consequence, the Hellenistic Period is usually accepted to begin in 323 BCE with Alexander's death and ends in 31 BCE with the conquest of the last Hellenistic kingdom by Rome, the Lagid kingdom of Egypt. Stoicism, founded by Zeno of Citium, taught that virtue was sufficient for eudaimonia as it would allow one to live in accordance with Nature or Logos. Most of the Greek cities rallied to the Achaeans' side, even slaves were freed to fight for Greek independence. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Pyrrhonism. It is a 37-gear mechanical computer which computed the motions of the Sun and Moon, including lunar and solar eclipses predicted on the basis of astronomical periods believed to have been learned from the Babylonians. Hellenistic art is the art of the Hellenistic period generally taken to begin with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and end with the conquest of the Greek world by the Romans, a process well underway by 146 BCE, when the Greek mainland was taken, and essentially ending in 30 BCE with the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt following the Battle of Actium. But the freedom promised by Rome was an illusion. Even Rome's allies Rhodes and Pergamum effectively lost their independence. During the reign of the Artaxiads, Armenia went through a period of hellenization. Nevertheless, Roman rule at least brought an end to warfare, and cities such as Athens, Corinth, Thessaloniki and Patras soon recovered their prosperity. [101] The core of Carthage's military was the Greek-style phalanx formed by citizen hoplite spearmen who had been conscripted into service, though their armies also included large numbers of mercenaries. Seleucus then attempted to conquer Lysimachus' European territories in Thrace and Macedon, but he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus ("the thunderbolt"), who had taken refuge at the Seleucid court and then had himself acclaimed as king of Macedon. As the Greek and Levantine cultures mingled, the development of a hybrid Hellenistic culture began, and persisted even when isolated from the main centres of Greek culture (for instance, in the Greco-Bactrian kingdom). In many ways, the Hellenistic period was a hugely cultured age – almost self-consciously so. Many Scythian elites purchased Greek products and some Scythian art shows Greek influences. In 133 BC, the last king of Pergamum died and left his kingdom to Rome: this brought most of the Aegean peninsula under direct Roman rule as part of the province of Asia. Hellenistic age, in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 bce. Hellenistic Greece 1. It is probable that at this point the Greco-Bactrian kingdom split into several semi-independent regions for some years, often warring amongst themselves. In this way, hybrid 'Hellenistic' cultures naturally emerged, at least among the upper echelons of society. Apollodotus I was succeeded by or ruled alongside Antimachus II, likely the son of the Bactrian king Antimachus I. The Hellenistic Era covers the period of Mediterranean history between Alexander the Great’s death in 323 BC and Rome’s conquest in Egypt in 30 BC. Greek city state known for philosophy, democracy, and arts. Eumenes II also constructed the Pergamum Altar with friezes depicting the Gigantomachy on the acropolis of the city. The Hellenistic period began with the wars of the Diadochi, armed contests among the former generals of Alexander the Great to carve up his empire in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. While victorious in the field, it seems Antiochus came to realise that there were advantages in the status quo (perhaps sensing that Bactria could not be governed from Syria), and married one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son, thus legitimising the Greco-Bactrian dynasty. Antiochus invaded Greece with a 10,000 man army, and was elected the commander in chief of the Aetolians. Still, Greek influence remained strong throughout many of those lands. Like the Ptolemies, Antiochus I established a dynastic religious cult, deifying his father Seleucus I. Seleucus, officially said to be descended from Apollo, had his own priests and monthly sacrifices. That is why the period from 323 BC to 27 BC became known as the Hellenistic period. During the reign of Philip V of Macedon (r. 221-179 BC), the Macedonians not only lost the Cretan War (205-200 BC) to an alliance led by Rhodes, but their erstwhile alliance with Hannibal of Carthage also entangled them in the First and Second Macedonian War with ancient Rome. and Diogenes of Sinope (c. 404-323 B.C.E.) The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World, 2007. p. 190. Demetrius, son and successor of Euthydemus, invaded north-western India in 180 BC, after the destruction of the Mauryan Empire there; the Mauryans were probably allies of the Bactrians (and Seleucids). Nabatean material culture does not show any Greek influence until the reign of Aretas III Philhellene in the 1st century BC. One of the few city states who managed to maintain full independence from the control of any Hellenistic kingdom was Rhodes. The Sophists proclaimed the centrality of humanity and agnosticism; the belief in Euhemerism (the view that the gods were simply ancient kings and heroes), became popular. He also expanded the kingdom further east into Punjab, though these conquests were rather ephemeral. Celtic coinage was influenced by Greek designs,[43] and Greek letters can be found on various Celtic coins, especially those of Southern France. In 310 BC, Cassander had young King Alexander IV and his mother Roxana murdered, ending the Argead Dynasty which had ruled Macedon for several centuries. In the aftermath, Philip formed the League of Corinth, effectively bringing the majority of Greece under his direct sway. [118] Hellenistic kings adopted patron deities as protectors of their house and sometimes claimed descent from them. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, the only few surviving representative texts being those of Menander (born 342/341 BC). Arnaldo Momigliano, an Italian Jew who wrote before and after the Second World War, studied the problem of mutual understanding between races in the conquered areas. He and his successors also fought a series of wars with the Seleucids, known as the Syrian wars, over the region of Coele-Syria. These federations involved a central government which controlled foreign policy and military affairs, while leaving most of the local governing to the city states, a system termed sympoliteia. Hellenistic means imitating the Greeks. Recently, however, papyrologist C. Préaux has concentrated predominantly on the economic system, interactions between kings and cities, and provides a generally pessimistic view on the period. During the course of this war Roman troops moved into Asia for the first time, where they defeated Antiochus again at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). Although Mithridates was not Greek, many Greek cities, including Athens, overthrew their Roman puppet rulers and joined him. The numismatic evidence together with archaeological finds and the scant historical records suggest that the fusion of eastern and western cultures reached its peak in the Indo-Greek kingdom. Afterwards he invaded southern Greece, and was killed in battle against Argos in 272 BC. 280 BC), the Boeotian league, the "Northern League" (Byzantium, Chalcedon, Heraclea Pontica and Tium)[28] and the "Nesiotic League" of the Cyclades. 321 B.C. Hellenistic scholars frequently employed the principles developed in earlier Greek thought: the application of mathematics and deliberate empirical research, in their scientific investigations.[128]. The Hellenistic period refers to the time from the death of Alexander the Great or the end of the Greek Classical Era in 323 B.C. This was a very short period in history. While Sparta remained independent, it became a political backwater. This was a very short period in history. The spread of Christianity throughout the Roman world, followed by the spread of Islam, ushered in the end of Hellenistic philosophy and the beginnings of Medieval philosophy (often forcefully, as under Justinian I), which was dominated by the three Abrahamic traditions: Jewish philosophy, Christian philosophy, and early Islamic philosophy. The spread of Greek culture under the Successors seems mostly to have occurred with the spreading of Greeks themselves, rather than as an active policy. In 255 BC, Ariarathes III took the title of king and married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II, remaining an ally of the Seleucid kingdom. This defeat allowed Pontus to invade and conquer the kingdom. The Egyptians begrudgingly accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt, though the kingdom went through several native revolts. After Cassander's death in c. 298 BC, however, Demetrius, who still maintained a sizable loyal army and fleet, invaded Macedon, seized the Macedonian throne (294 BC) and conquered Thessaly and most of central Greece (293–291 BC). This period is called as the ancient Greece Hellenistic because of the Greek empire was spread across the entire Mediterranean and parts of Asia and had reached till India. Despite their initial reluctance, the Successors seem to have later deliberately naturalized themselves to their different regions, presumably in order to help maintain control of the population. During the reign of Tigranes the Great (95–55 BC), the kingdom of Armenia reached its greatest extent, containing many Greek cities, including the entire Syrian tetrapolis. Crateuas wrote a compendium on botanic pharmacy. Their rulers established ruler cults in the manner of Hellenistic kings and often used Hellenistic royal epithets. 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